Dog training techniques based on learning theories and dog training techniques based on canine ethology. Next, in dog training Orange County we will detail what they consist of and how to apply them.
Techniques based on learning theories focus on the modification of dog behaviors, giving less relevance to the typical behavior of the canine species. For their part, techniques based on canine ethology focus on the typical natural behavior of dogs, prioritizing the establishment of dominance hierarchies and giving less importance to learning theories.
Techniques that include violence and dog abuse should not be allowed, or even considered, in modern dog training techniques. Acting deliberately against the welfare of our dog can bring us very serious consequences.
Techniques based on learning theories
This category includes those techniques whose main routes of teaching are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, or punishment. Since all these techniques are very different from each other, they are classified into three specific subcategories: traditional dog training, positive training, and mixed techniques.
Traditional dog training
Traditional training originated in the canine schools of war dogs and was highly successful in training military dogs for both world wars. After the Second World War, it became very popular thanks to the stories of heroic dogs.
In these techniques, negative reinforcement and punishment are the exclusive means of training. To achieve results, it is necessary to physically force the dogs until they perform the actions that the handler wishes. The choke collars, barbed and electric tools are excellent for this type of work.
Although these techniques are fiercely defended by their practitioners, they are also attacked with the same stubbornness by those who consider them cruel and violent.
The main benefit of traditional training is the great reliability of the trained behaviors. On the other hand, the disadvantages include potential collateral behavior problems caused by training, as well as possible damage to the dog’s windpipe when hanging collars are used.
These techniques should not even be practiced, unfortunately, they are the techniques that have been written the most and that we find on the Internet.
Positive training comprises a set of techniques based on the principles of operant conditioning developed by BF Skinner. Its popularity was very low until the 1990s when Karen Pryor’s ” Don’t kill him … teach him ” book became a best seller.
With these techniques, it is not necessary to wear training collars, and the training sessions are very rewarding for both trainers and dogs. The main teaching method consists of the use of positive reinforcement, popularly known as rewards.
Therefore, what is done mainly is to reinforce the desired behaviors either through food, congratulations or others. There are also means to eliminate unwanted behavior, but punishment is not used in any case. Currently the most popular of the positive training techniques is Dog Training Long Beach.
The main advantages of positive training are that:
- The results are as reliable as those obtained with traditional training.
- It is not necessary to physically bend the dog.
- It is very simple, fast, and fun to train a dog this way.
- We encourage him to learn by relating for himself what we expect from him.
Paradoxically, the main disadvantage of positive training is in the speed with which initial results are achieved. Many novice trainers marvel at the beginning stages and do not bother to perfect the training. The consequence is, logically, that the training is half done.
Mixed techniques are intermediate points between traditional training and positive training. Therefore, they are usually less harsh than the first, but less friendly than the second.
These techniques have given very good results with dogs that compete in contact canine sports, such as the Schutzhund, RCI, Mondioring, Belgian Ring, etc.
Generally, trainers using mixed techniques combine the use of the hanging collar with rewards. However, they often prefer to use toys rather than food. According to the trainers, this stimulates the prey drive. The exception to not using food tends to be in the initial stages and for crawl training, but this is up to the trainer.
How to Trim A Dog’s Nails (A Step by Step Guide)
If you want to learn how to groom your dog at home, you need to know the basics, such as how to cut a dog’s nails. I’ll show you exactly what you need to do and how to do it safely so that know one gets hurt.
Cutting a dog’s fingernails might sound scary but there’s nothing about it that’s difficult. You just have to be careful and know what you’re doing .
You should start off by collecting all of the supplies for this task. This includes, but is not limited to:
- Nail Trimmer
- Styptic Powder (optional)
Now that you’ve got your stuff together, it’s time to get started.
Step 1: Make Your Dog Comfortable
First, make sure your dog is relaxed and comfortable around you. Do this by giving him a treat or two before starting. If possible, start this process after they’ve eaten their meal to help them feel extra sleepy and calm! For anxious dogs, you can even try CBD Oil for Dogs.
Step 2: Prepare The Paw
Second, lift one of your dogs paws into your hand and press gently on the pad of the paw while looking at the tip of each nail. You’ll be able to see where your dog’s skin is and if you cut it, he will bleed and it may hurt him.
That’s why we use a nail cutter, so we don’t have to worry about hurting our dog when trimming their nails.
Step Three: Secure The Paw
Third, you can feel free to push down on the pad of their paw if it’s more comfortable for you. If your dog is wiggly when you’re trying to hold his paw, you can try this instead!
Step 4: Apply The Cut
Fourth, once you’ve identified where the quick ends in each nail, go ahead and cut just past that point. You’ll only want to cut into the pinkish area on the end of his nail, not into the black part. If you do accidentally cut into this black section, use an absorbent cotton ball to stop the bleeding. After it stops, apply some styptic powder to help the blood clot faster and prevent infection in your dog’s paw. You can then apply some CBD for Pets to promote healing as well.
Step 5: Repeat on All Nails
Fifth, keep trimming until all their nails are the same length.
Step by Step Instructions for Trimming Dog Nails
- Pet your dog and make sure they’re comfortable with you
- With one paw in each hand, feel for the end of each nail to know where to cut
- Cut just past this point (only into the pinkish area)
- Keep cutting until all of the nails are the same length
- If you accidentally cut into the black part, apply some styptic powder to stop the bleeding
Now that you’ve learned how to cut your dog’s nails, you can feel confident doing it at home! If this process continues to be too stressful for either of you, then why not try bringing them to a groomer?
If you want more information on how to do this and other dog grooming basics, check out the video linked below:
Do Dogs Dream?
Whether or not dogs dream isn’t known with scientific certainty, but it sure is difficult to imagine that they don’t. We’ve all watched our dogs demonstrate behaviours in their sleep that resemble what they do in a fully awake state. Paddling legs, whining, growling, wagging tails, chewing jowls, and twitching noses inspire us to wonder what our dogs are dreaming about.
What we know about dogs and dreams
While our knowledge on this topic is very limited, the following known information helps us believe that dogs do indeed experience dreams. According to MIT News, Matthew Wilson, a professor of neuroscience at MIT, and Kenway Louie, a graduate student in 2001, have studied the relationships between memory, sleep and dreams. They found that when rats were trained to run along a circular track for food rewards, their brains created a distinctive firing pattern of neurons (brain cells). The researchers repeated the brain monitoring while the rats were sleeping. Low and behold, they observed the same signature brain activity pattern associated with running whether the rats were awake or asleep. In fact, the memories played at approximately the same speed during sleep as when the rats were awake.
Can we apply this to dogs?
Can we take what is known about dreaming in rats and humans and apply the information to dogs? Wilson believes that we can.”My guess is — unless there is something special about rats and humans — that cats and dogs are doing exactly the same thing,” he said, according to USA Today’s website.
It is known that the hippocampus, the portion of the brain that collects and stores memories, is wired much the same way in all mammals. According to healthday.com, Professor Wilson says, “If you compared a hippocampus in a rat to a dog; in a cat to a human, they contain all of the same pieces.” He believes that as dogs sleep, images of past events replay in their minds, much the same way people recall experiences while dreaming.
In people, it is known that most dreams occur during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, according to the National Institutes of Health. Dogs also experience periods of REM sleep. Psychology Today’s website says that during REM their breathing becomes more irregular and shallow. There may be muscle twitching during REM and, when one looks closely, rapid eye movements behind closed eyelids can often be observed. It is during REM sleep that behaviours thought to be associated with dreaming (legs paddling, twitching, vocalizing, etc.) are most commonly observed.
What we want to believe about dog dreams
When we observe our dogs as they sleep, it’s just about impossible to imagine that they are not dreaming. Just like the rats studied by Wilson and Louie, it is tempting to believe that our four-legged best buddies are reenacting their recent experiences; playing at the dog park, sniffing in the woods, chewing on a treasured bone, and chasing squirrels.
The National Institutes of Health says that Sigmund Freud theorized that dreaming was a “safety valve” for our unconscious desires. Perhaps he is correct, and, when our dogs sleep, they dream about catching the neighbour’s pesky cat, continuous belly rubs in conjunction with unlimited dog treats, and stealing the Thanksgiving turkey from the dining room table.
If you have any questions or concerns, you should always visit or call your veterinarian — they are your best resource to ensure the health and well-being of your pets.
5 Reasons to why you should test Your Dog for Diabetes
Did you know that some authorities feel that 1 out of every 100 dogs that reach 12 years of age develops diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a hormonal problem where the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin, the hormone that helps push sugar (“glucose”) into the body’s cells. Without the insulin, the body’s cells are starving for sugar; unfortunately, this then stimulates the body to produce more and more sugar (in an attempt to feed the cells). That’s why your dog’s blood sugar is so high (what we call a “hyperglycemia”) with diabetes mellitus.
Without insulin, the sugar can’t get into the cells; hence, why you need to give insulin to your dog with a tiny syringe twice a day. In dogs, this is a disease that can be costly to treat and requires twice-a-day insulin along with frequent veterinary visits for the rest of your dog’s life.
So how do you know if your dog has diabetes? Clinical signs of diabetes mellitus in dogs include:
- Excessive drinking
- Excessive urination
- Urinary accidents in the house
- Dilute urine
- Overweight or obese
- Muscle wasting
- Ravenous appetite
- Frequent urinary tract infections
- Unkempt or poor hair coat
- Blindness secondary to cataracts
- Neuropathies (nerve problems)
As your dog gets older, it’s worth talking to your veterinarian about doing routine blood work to make sure your dog is healthy. This blood work will help rule out kidney and liver problems, anaemia, infections, electrolyte problems and diabetes mellitus. The sooner you recognize the clinical signs, the sooner your dog can be treated with insulin and the fewer complications we see as a result.
So, if you notice any of the signs above, get to a veterinarian right away. Now, continue on for 5 important reasons to test your dog for diabetes:
1. Your dog will live longer
Diabetes mellitus can shorten the lifespan of your dog, as secondary complications and infections can occur. With diabetes, the body is immunosuppressed and more likely to develop diabetic complications which cause long term harm to your dog.
2. Your dog will be able to see
Did you know that the majority of dogs with diabetes eventually go blind from cataracts? Even in well-controlled diabetic dogs, the excess sugar in the body can have secondary effects on the lens of the eye; it causes more water to influx into the lens, which disrupts the clearness of the lens. As a result, cataract formation occurs, resulting in eventual blindness and secondary inflammation in both eyes. While cataract surgery can (and ideally, should) be performed, it can be costly.
3. You’ll save a lot of money
Treatment for diabetes mellitus includes twice-a-day insulin treatment, insulin syringes, prescription diets, and frequent veterinary trips for blood tests. Also, as diabetic dogs can’t go without their insulin, it may mean hiring house sitters or pet sitters to treat your pet while you are on vacation.
4. You’ll have fewer urinary accidents in the house
One of the biggest signs of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is excessive drinking, urination and having urinary accidents in the house. Because of hyperglycemia, dogs are also at increased risk for urinary tract infections, wreaking havoc on your carpet. The sooner you can treat your dog with insulin and get diabetes controlled or regulated, the less your dog will drink and urinate, making your dog more comfortable too!
5. You’ll have more peace knowing that your dog is healthy
As a veterinarian and dog owner, I want to make sure my dog is as healthy as possible. You might already be talking with your veterinarian about vaccines each year in a dog that is older than 7 years of age; next, talk to your veterinarian about doing an annual exam and routine blood work too. It’ll pick up on medical problems sooner, so you can rest assured that your dog is going to live a longer, happier, healthier life!
Having a diabetic pet is also a big commitment, as it requires dedicated pet parents who can give twice-a-day injections of insulin. Caring for a diabetic dog does require frequent trips to the veterinarian to regulate blood sugar. That said, dogs can live with diabetes for years with appropriate care and treatment. When in doubt, make sure to monitor your dog carefully for the signs of diabetes, and seek veterinary attention sooner rather than later to help test for this ever-growing problem!
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